星期三, 5月 11, 2011

RCS 0114 Critical Reasoning Section 55

RCS 0114
Critical Reasoning
Section 55




Content

A.   Article One
1)  Content of article
2)  Definition of the informal fallacy
3)  Analysis

B.   Article Two
1)  Content of article
2)  Definition of the informal fallacy
3)  Analysis

C.   Article Three
1)  Content of article
2)  Definition of the informal fallacy
3)  Analysis






 Article one
1. Content of article:
為什麼會迷信?
 (明報)2010223 星期二 05:10
【明報專訊】55歲茅山師傅歐陽國富自稱可助有志入娛樂圈的19歲「口靚模」轉運,誘騙她九度發生性行為並令她懷孕,茅山師傅被裁定9項誘騙性交罪成,判入獄69個月。現年21歲的口靚模供稱,因她當時工作量不多,經理人提及認識一名茅山師傅,可做法事令事業運轉好,因她們屬演藝界,所以要做性交、口交等茅山儀式。口靚模希望增加工作量及賺多些錢,答應做法事。
法官:過分迷信會釀悲劇
口靚模認為茅山師傅有法力不會令她懷孕,被告更叫她不用避孕。後來口靚模有感星運未見起色,質疑作法成效,被告指要完成9次法事才有效。口靚模對被告的說法半信半疑,但「真心希望可改運」,故仍按被告要求,每隔一個月便往「作法」。
該案法官陳廣池認為社會上有宗教與相信神靈的自由,又指迷信不一定是壞事,惟一旦過態便會釀成悲劇。價值觀會影響個人對外界遭遇的感受,他強調樂天安命、追求快樂為人之所求,命運乃掌握於一己修為與個人奮進,希望事件警惕過分迷信的人。
傳統中國習俗講求吉利,例如8代表「發」,與「死」諧音的414等數字就是不吉祥,傳統家庭的家中更會有一本《通勝》,可以查閱日子的吉凶。對相信科學的人來說,查《通勝》可能是迷信,香港城市大學    中國文化中心    任鄭培凱教授則認為﹕「《通勝》內的曆法指出那天做什麼才配合天意,是按一年的年月日節氣安排生活的民間智慧,也是日常生活上的哲學。」他指出,以往的農民紅、白二事都會查《通勝》,「在作出生命中重要決定前,會從這本日常生活重要的書中找個吉利日子」。他指《通勝》對較相信命運學的人有用,「這些人較心存依賴,在吉利的日子心理上覺得較舒服、安穩,是圖個心安吧」。
不止是中國人,外國人也有迷信的方式。例如皇家馬德里    球星基斯坦奴朗拿度每逢大賽前,都要到同一家理髮店理髮,俄羅斯    網球員舒拉寶娃    則要求固定更衣室儲物櫃號碼等。
操作制約論 解釋「迷信」現象
美國    心理學家B. F. Skinner的操作制約(Operant conditioning)學說,或可解釋這個現象︰當你做一些行為,而這些行為帶來愉快結果,你就會開始把這個行為聯繫上結果,久而久之,行為會變成例行動作。就像多哥國腳、曼城    前鋒艾迪巴約    ,他有次代表多哥出賽,一個朋友送他護脛,結果那場比賽他建功了。艾迪巴約從此對這塊「好運pad」情有獨鍾,無論訓練或比賽都戴著。
2. Fallacy: False Causes
False Cause is presuming mistakenly the reality of certain causal connections.
3. Analysis:

Rephrasing  the original argument
Rephrase:
Since they are the art performers, to do sexual intercourse, oral sex and so on of the “Maoshan” rite can improve the career fortune. 
Premises and Conclusions
Premise:
P        They are the art performers
Conclusions:
C       To do sexual intercourse, oral sex and so on of the “Maoshan” rite can improve the career fortune.
Explanation

There is no doubt that sex can just satisfy human desire. But there is no any evidence show that sex can improve one’s career fortune. Although they are the art performers, they use sex is cannot change their luck or improve their career fortune. Some people may want to achieve their desires or wants, and then choose to do things wrongly. That is a very dangerous thing that let many people would get hurt by that. As a result, there is an imagined causal connection between the premise and conclusion.

Hence, the argument contains an informal fallacy of having a false cause.



Article Two

1. Content of the article:

大公報            201031

擔心再塌樓 不滿遭忽略 業主促重建春田街雙號

【本報訊】市建局宣布展開馬頭圍道、春田街及鶴園街重建工程後,昨日舉行首場公眾諮詢會議,商討重建項目的細節。不少春田街雙數號碼的業主,不滿市建局沒將該處納入重建範圍,要求市建局一視同仁;有鶴園街業主則要求「舖換舖」,否則會反對方案。市建局主席張震遠表示,已考慮多方面因素,若將春田街雙數號碼納入重建項目,會拖慢整個工程進度。

擬建兩幢30 層高樓

市建局上周宣布,啟動重建馬頭圍道43 45J 號、春田街1 23 號單號,以及鶴園街6 8 號的項目,昨午舉行首場公眾諮詢會議,約有三百名受影響居民參加。市建局初步構思於項目範圍內,重建兩幢樓高三十層的樓宇,保留現有的街舖特色,並確保有足夠的公共空間及通風位置;至於重建後的樓宇,市建局計劃不會設有平台。

張震遠說,今次重建是特事特辦,諮詢期為期一個月,期望能盡快安置居民;居民可於本月二十四日前,就重建計劃提出意見,若沒有居民提出反對,市建局最快可於五月提出收購價。

納重建將拖慢工程

在諮詢會上,不少春田街雙數號碼業主,不滿市建局沒將該處同時列入重建範圍。春田街雙數號碼業主其中一名代表先生說,雙號業主同樣受到塌樓事件影響,留下陰影,他認為市建局只重建春田街單號,是忽略他們的感受,對他們並不公平。他還擔心重建工作展開後,工程會對春田街雙號樓宇造成損害,要求市建局一併重建。

張震遠回應說,曾考慮同時重建春田街雙號,但當地樓宇狀況明顯較馬頭圍道、春田街單號良好,而且若將雙號列入重建範圍,會拖慢整體工程進度,有可能要待一年後才展開。

因此經多方面考慮後,市建局決定以大局為重。他表示明白春田街雙號居民的失望,強調工程不會影響該處。

他還說,未來不排除重建春田街雙號,但暫時未有計劃。

舖主要求「舖換舖」

鶴園街業主亦不滿重建計劃。位於鶴園街六號的合隆麵檔先生表示,麵檔已經歷兩代,不滿市建局重建過程倉卒。他要求市建局「舖換舖」,並稱當地不少住宅業主要求「樓換樓」,否則將反對方案。數十名居民在大會完結後,更一度包圍張震遠理論,張震遠表示,收到居民意見,市建局本周四、五會再舉行四場諮詢大會,聽取更多居民建議。   

2. Fallacy: Division

Neglected the significance, misunderstand an property of the whole will be preserved after division.

3. Analysis

Rephrasing  the original argument
Rephrase:
On the consultation forum, a lot of property owners of even street numbers of
Chun Tin Street
were dissatisfied with the Urban Renewal Authority (URA) that the buildings of even street numbers were not included in the redevelopment project. Mr. Kwan, one of the property owners, said the owners of even street numbers were also affected by the building collapse which casted a shadow over their lives. He thought that URA ignored their feelings as only the buildings of odd numbers of
Chun Tin Street
were going to be redeveloped. It was unfair to them. In addition, he was worried that the construction work of the redevelopment project would cause damages to the buildings of even numbers of Chun Tin. He requested URA to include those buildings in the project.

Premises and Conclusions
Premises:
P1.      
Chun Tin Street
is included in the redevelopment project.
P2.       Even street numbers of
Chun Tin Street
are a part of
Chun Tin Street
.
Conclusions:
C         Even street numbers of Chun Tin Street must include in the redevelopment project of Ma Tau Wai Road.







Explanation

Because of the accident that occurred in
Ma Tau Wai Road
, the Urban Renewal Authority (URA) announced that the buildings of 43- 45J
Ma Tau Wai Road
,
1-23 Odd street
numbers of
Chun Tin Street
and
6-8 Hok Yuen Street
were going to be redeveloped. However the even street numbers of  Chun Tin Street was not in the list of this redevelopment project, and  the owners of this building argued that their building also are the part of Chun Tin Street, so they think their building should be redeveloped too. However the URA chairman argued that because the building’s structure (even street numbers of
Chun Tin Street
) was better than the odd street numbers buildings. In this case the owners of Even street numbers had misunderstand that Odd street numbers of Chun Tin Street were going to redeveloped, because these buildings were a part of Chun Tin Street, it causes the owners of Even street numbers think that they must be redeveloped too because these buildings also are a part of Chun Tin Street.

Hence, the argument contains an informal fallacy of having a Division.



Article Three

1. Content of the article:

香港經濟日報                        201016

o靚模藏K仔判感化 鞠躬致歉

【本報訊】17o靚模Monique於去年9月在校內藏K仔,學校職員揭發報警,她早前承認1項藏毒罪,昨被判接受感化1年。

她昨先後7度鞠躬向公眾致歉,指將出任禁毒大使,希望其過錯能對青少年起警惕作用。

「翻 版阿Sa 將任禁毒大使

有「翻版阿Sa」之稱的Monique周凱盈,案發時在瑪利亞書院就讀中五,她昨打扮樸素及薄施脂粉。

其代表律師原打算為她求情,但裁判官指已閱畢感化官報告,決定接納建議,頒令她接受感化令。

案發於去年98,瑪利亞書院職員在校內發現被告形迹可疑,遂向她查問,她將涉案毒品交予他,校方報警將她拘捕,政府化驗師證實紙包內藏有0.06 胺酮粉末(俗稱K仔),其兩個尿液樣本呈陽性反應。

周表示會就讀中六,希望公眾給她機會改過,她將出任禁毒大使,呼籲青少年遠離毒品。

2. Fallacy: Argument against Persons

To attack an opponent’s view or position by appealing to his problematic characters, social status or special circumstances, instead of giving relevant reasons.

3. Analysis

Rephrasing  the original argument
Rephrase:
A teen model called Monique who was found in possession of ketamine inside her school on last September. She has admitted her crime and has been put on probation for 12 months.
She later appeared at a conference and bowed seven times to the publics to show her remorse, and said that she will be an Anti-drug Ambassador to have an effect on public.

Premises and Conclusions
Premises:
P.         Monique has taken drug before.         .
Conclusions:
C.                She is suitable to be an Anti-drug Ambassador to persuade the publics do not take drug.

Explanation

Monique was 17 years old and she is studying in secondary school. Also she was a young model and there have some people who like her very much. However she was found in possession of ketamine last year. After this occurred, she still going to be an Anti-drug Ambassador. However it is ineffective because she has taken drug before, and it is hard to persuade publics especially students, and they may reject the argument about the disadvantages of taken drug that provide by Monique.

Hence, the argument contains an informal fallacy of Argument against Persons.


End

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